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The Oxenden Family

Oxenden comes from the Old English words oxena (cattle) and denn (woodland, pasture, clearing).  The family name is taken from their association with Oxenden or Oxney Manor in Nonington
Oxenden Crescent is named after the family
The Oxendens in Wingham | The Oxenden Baronetcy

 

The Oxenden's in Nonington
Thomas de Oxenden
A survey for Archbishop John Peckham  in 1283 listed the manor of Oxenden as being held by Thomas de Oxenden
Soloman de Oxenden  in Nunnington
In 1367 the manor was held by Solomon Oxenden who married Joyce, daughter of Alexander de Dene near Wingham.
They had two sons - Allan and Richard(1)
Solomon was buried in Nonington Church.
Richard(1) (c1200 -1338)
In 1320 the second son of Solomon, became a Benedictine monk  of Christ Church, Canterbury under Walter Reynolds.
In 1324 the aging  Prior of Christ Church, Henry de Eastry,  requested that Richard be ordained deacon. The service was conducted by Hamo de Hythe , Bishop of Rochester
Prior Henry died aged 92 on 6th April 1331 and by 25th the monks had elected Richard(1) to succeed him.
Richard(1) contributed the sum of £34 10s (Shillings) and 10d (Pence) to the installation of a decorated window for the south wall of the chapel to St Anselm. The remainder of the money needed was donated by friends of the deceased Simon Mepham. The total cost was £42 17s and 2d (£42.61p)
His time as prior ended with his death after only 7 years.  A monument was erected in the Canterbury Cathedral with the inscription: 
Here rests in mercy and thankfulness Richard Oxenden, sometime Prior of this church, who died August 4th 1338
Richard(2) Oxenden de Wingham
Richard Oxenden de Wingham, the son of Allan lived in the reign of Edward III (1327-1377) and was the last Oxenden known to be buried in Nonington, the family having moved its home to Wingham.
 
The Oxenden's in Wingham
Richard(3).Oxenden de Wingham
Richard Oxenden de Wingham, the son of Richard(2) lived in the reign of Richard II.(1377-99). He married Isabella de Twitham.  They had a son, John(1)
Richard was the first Oxenden to be buried in St John's Chapel in the Church of St Mary, Wingham
 
John(1) - de Wingham
The son (whose surname was Ginkin) of Richard(3), was alive during the reign of Henry VI. He married Isabella, daughter of Richard de Ratling. They had two sons, John(2) and Robert.
He was buried near his father in  St John's Chapel, Wingham 
John(2) - de Wingham
The son of John(1) married Jane Dene. They had two sons, Richard(4) and Thomas(1).  
Hussey, A (1896) suggests that John(2) applied for a coat of arms. The arms were granted  on 6th February 1446, after he had died in 1440
Richard(4) - de Wingham
Son of John(2) married Jane de Wenderton. There were no children.
Richard is credited with building the campanile at Goodnestone Church
He died in 1469

Thomas(1) - de Reculver

The younger son of John(2)* who it seems moved to Reculver. He married Jane Orleston and they had one son, Thomas(2) 
Thomas de Reculver died in 1450 and was buried at Reculver

* Some consider Thomas(1) to be the the third son of John(1)

Thomas(2) - de Dene
Son of Thomas(1). He married Elizabeth Rainscroft, whose father was a fishmonger in London. They had two sons, Edward(1) and William
The de Dene suffix suggests that Thomas(2) was born in the Wingham area, but he appears to have spent most of his time in London. On his death in 1492 he was buried in the church of St Mary Magdalen.
Edward(1) - de Dene
The eldest son of Thomas(2) married Alicia Barton. They had two sons, William(1) and Henry(1) and three daughters, Maria Fransisca  and Elizabeth.  He held both Brooke and Dene.
In 1501 He was appointed Warden of Cruddeswood and was church warden at the time of the Visitation of  Archbishop William Warham on 16th September 1511. 
Edward(1) fell into financial difficulties and spent some time in prison, only being released on a promise to discharge his debts. 
On his death in 1521 Edward(1) was buried at Wingham, leaving Brooke to William(1) and Dene to Henry(1).
William(1) Oxenden de Wingam (c 1510-76) 
Son of Edward(1), born c1510. He married Elizabeth Hill (or Hyles).
William(1) (together with his mother) was named Executor of his father's will. Land was sold to pay off the debts, but the Wingham estate appears to have remained intact. 
From 1540 (or earlier) William(1) was employed by the  Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, Sir Thomas Cheyne. In 1553 he was sent to Sandwich  to rebuke the people for ignoring his wishes at the election of their Members.
In the same year he was given Captaincy of the Clay bulwark ,near Deal and appointed Commissioner of sewers in Kent
 William(1) was elected a Member of Parliament for Hythe in October 1554. He probably owed much to Cheyne for this success and in November his name was inserted (in a different hand from that of the document) as a nominee for Cheyne's election at Romney
During her first Parliament, Mary I was keen to forge a reunion with the church in Rome. William(1) did not oppose this, but in 1555 he was informed against in the King's Bench for leaving Mary's third Parliament before it was dissolved. In 1558 he was distrained  of 2s., 5s.and 3s.4d (10p, 25p and 17p) for having still not answered the charge.
In April 1556 he was named to a commission on heretical books in the  Diocese of Canterbury (possibly by the Council of Trent). In August he and William Rastell were instructed by the Privy Council to investigate an escape of prisoners from Canterbury gaol (At that time in the Westgate). 
From February to November 1557 William(1) acted as Escheator
Having had no children of his own, William(1) left his house and all his lands to his nephew Edward(2) Oxenden for ten years. He made bequests to the poor of Staple,  and Wingham and to William LovelaceWilliam Crispe, lieutenant of Dover_Castle, Cyriak Petyt and Vincent Engeham. The executors were his brother Henry(1) and his nephew Richard Hardres, to whom he bequeathed "... my great horse my hawk and spanells (spaniels)". 
William(1) was buried in the north chapel of St Mary's, Wingham on 10th April 1576
Henry(1) Oxenden de Dene (1513- 1597)
The second son of Edward(1) , bother of William(1) married Thomasine Sea and then Elizabeth Young. They had five sons, - Edward(2), Henry(3), Thomas. Christopher and William - and a daughter, Maria.
Having inherited Dene, Henry(1) left Brooke to live there. He had Dene House built in about 1582 and died there in 1597. 
He was buried in the Brooke Chantry where a stone bears the inscription 
Here lyeth buried the bodye of Henry Oxinden Esq, Who builded that house in Wingham called Deane, who parted this life the 1st of August 1597, and gave his land to Henry Oxinden his son.
Disce quid es, et quid eris. Memento mori
Edward(2)  Oxenden of Brooke
The first son of Henry(1) married Alicia Fowler of Iseldon (Islington), London. They had twin sons - William(2) and Henry(2) and six daughters - Mercy, Jane, Katherine, Priscilla, Margaret and Elizabeth
Edward(2) died 6th February 1615.
William(2) Oxenden (1581-1657)
Born in September 1581, the son of Edward(2) and twin of Henry(2) was married to Dorothy Grove of Canterbury. They had no children. William(2) died 7th April 1657
Henry(2)  Oxenden
Twin brother to William(2) and son of Edward(2). He married Maria Fendall and they had two sons. Henry (b. 1620) and William and three daughters - Mary, Katherine and Anna.
Sir Henry(3) Oxenden de Dene (1549 - 1620)
The second son of Henry(1) married firstly to Mary Theobold in 1574. There was a divorce or annulment and Mary married William Bawes around 1620 and died in1636. Henry(3) had a second marriage to Elizabeth, heiress of Jacob Brooker of Maydeken, Barham on 22nd May 1581. They had two sons - James(1) and Richard
Henry(3) was knighted  on 17th February 1606
He was buried at Wingham in May 1620
James(1) Oxenden de Dene (1586 - 1657)
The eldest son of Henry(3) was born in February 1586. A soldier, he married Margaret Nevison on 27th September 1605. They had five sons - Henry(4), James(2), George(1), William and Christopher. There were also six daughters - Anna, Mary, Elizabeth, Margaret, Jana/Joan and Sibylla.  
James(1) died at Dene on 24th September 1657. He was buried in Wingham Church as was his wife in May 1671.
Richard(5)  Oxenden de Herne (1588 - 1629)
The second son of Henry(3) was born at Dene on 30th July 1588. On 11th January  1607 he married Katherine Sprackling in the church of St Paul, Canterbury.
They had four sons - Henry, James, Richard and Adam. They also had two daughters - Katherine and Elizabeth
Richard(5) at Maydeken,  on 20th May 1629 and was buried in the church at Denton
Sir Henry(4) Oxenden (1614-1686)
The eldest son of James(1), was born on 28th April 1614 at his uncle Richard(5)'s  residence in Herne.
He married Mary Baker, daughter of Robert Baker of Westminster. They had one daughter. Mary who died when 4 years old
Mary died in childbirth and was buried 5th Dec. 1638
On 14th August 1640 Henry(4) married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Meredith, (1st Meredith Baronet ) of Leeds Priory 
Elizabeth gave birth to seven sons James(3), Henry(5), George(3), William, Christopher, William and 6 daughters Susanna, Elizabeth, Margaret, Jane, Anna and Mary
By 1641 Henry(4) had been appointed Captain of the Militia in Kent and from 1643 - 8 was commissioner for assessment
He was elected Member of Parliament for Winchelsea on 2nd October 1645 where he favoured Parliament  in the English Civil War
In 1648 he was implicated in Kentish Revolt and after Pride's_Purge he did not attend Parliament and  by 1651 he had compounded for the moderate fine of £20
He was elected Member of Parliament for Kent Constituency  in 1654 and 1656. Also in 1654 he was appointed  Commissioner for Scandalous Ministers 
On 19th Aug 1659 Elizabeth died and on 18th Feb 1660 Henry(4) married Elizabeth Dixwell, widower of  Morace "Mark" Dixwell of Broome House, Barham of daughter of Mathew Reade of Folkestone.
1660 was an eventful year. As well as getting married for a third time Henry(4) was  elected to Parliament for the  Sandwich constituency on 12th April. On 11th June he was knighted and in September he was made Commissioner of Sewers
In 1675 he became Commissioner for Recusants
On 8th May 1678 Henry(4) was created Ist Baronet Oxenden of Dene
During the 1681 election campaign his political views were shown by his energetic support for the exclusionist  Edward Dering
When he died in August 1686 Henry(4) left bequests totaling almost £4,000
His third wife Elizabeth continued to live at Broome until her death in 1691. Since then Broome has remained the chief family seat of the Oxendens 
James(2) Oxenden (1615-1638)
The second son of James(1) was born at Dene on 6th July 1615. He did not marry.
He was buried in Wingham Church on 10th February 1638
George(1) Oxenden (1620 - 69)
The third son of James(1) was born on 3rd April 1620. He was knighted in 1661 and 19th March 1662 he was appointed Governor of the Bombay Presidency which was held by the  British East India Company.
There is no record of marriage or children.
He died on 14th July 1669. A monument was erected over his grave at Surat. Part of the inscription reads
He was honored for his oft-repeated services to the Company, with special marks of favor and gratitude. A man most eminent for his noble blood, experience of affairs, fortitude, prudence and probity
George(1) left a legacy of £300 to be used to provide a Monument to the Oxendens  Wingham Church
http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Oxenden,_George_(1620-1669)_(DNB00)
George(2)  Oxenden (1651 - 1703)
The third son of Henry(4) was admitted at Trinity Hall, Cambridge as a scholar on 8 July 1667. 
He married married Elizabeth Dixwell, daughter of Sir Basil Dixwell, (1st Baronet) around 1700. They had three sons - Henry(6), James (who died in infancy) and  George(3) 
In 1671 he became a fellow and a Doctor of Law. In 1673 he became a Master of Arts.
George(2) entered Doctors' Commons in 1679 and became Regius Professor in 1684 and by 1689 was Master of Trinity College. He also became vicar-general to the Archbishop of Canterbury and Dean of Arches 
He was a judge of the Admiralty in 1689 and  a commissioner for the rebuilding of St Paul's Cathedral.
From 1695 to 1698 he was  Member of Parliament for Cambridge University
George) died at his house in Doctors Commons and was buried in the family vault at Wingham.
More info at http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org
Montague Oxenden (1799 - 1880)
The 3rd son of Henry(8) was born 28th April 1799 at Broome and was educated at Exeter College, Oxford. In 1823 he was ordained deacon by the Bishop of York, William Markham.
He married Elizabeth Wilson on the 26th February 1824. They had children: Hanna Mary Dixwell-Oxenden, Henry(10) Montague Oxenden, Agnes Graham Oxenden, Flora Elizabeth Oxenden and  Percy Dixwell Nowell Dixwel-Oxenden. The family lived at Dene.
Montague became Vicar of Wingham in 1826 and from 1827 to 18 78 he was Rector of Luddenham, Kent.
In 1837   Earl of Winchelsea, (George Finch-Hatton) appointed him Rector of Eastwell a position held until his death on 25 January 1880.
 
The Oxenden Baronetcy
1st:  Sir Henry(4)  Oxenden of Dene (1614-1686) (1678)
The title of Baronet Oxenden of Dene was bestowed on Henry(4) Oxenden on 8th May 1678
2nd: Sir James(3) Oxenden of Dene (1641- 1708) 
The eldest son of  Henry(4), Was born 4th April at Dene. he was Member of Parliament for Sandwich (1679-85), receiving a knighthood on 22nd March 1671.
On 7th May 1673 he married  Elizabeth daughter of Edward Chute of Bethersden 
He succeeded to the Baronetcy in August 1686 and in the same year founded a school to teach twenty poor children reading and writing, which survived for over 200 years becoming in the later stages of its life a National School.
He was elected Member of Parliament for Kent in 1698 and also in that year married  Arabella  daughter. of Edward, Baron Rockingham on 1st December.
He was re-elected for Sandwich (1701-2)
The 2nd Baronet died on 29th Sep 1708 at Dene, aged 67. He had no children and the title passed to his brother Henry(5)
More info at  historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1690-1715/member/oxenden-sir-james-1641-1708 
3rd: Henry(5)  Oxenden of Dene (1645 –1709)
The 2nd son of Henry(4) was the deputy-governor of Bombay during the rule of the East India Company from 30th June 1677 until 27th October 1681.
4th: Henry(6) Oxenden of Dene (1690-1720)
The eldest son of George(2) was born on 10th July 1690. At 17 years of age he went to study at Trinity Hall, Cambridge and succeed to the Baronetcy in 1709. The inheritance was contested unsuccessfully by Sir Henry Penrice.
On 27th July 1712, Henry(6) married Anne Holloway daughter of John, a barrister. They had no children. 
His first attempt to enter Parliament, in April 1713 was unsuccessful, but he was elected for Sandwich at the General Election on 25th August of the same year.
In Parliament Henry(6) voted  as a Whig and voted with the Administration on the Septennial Act 1715, but his health was deteriorating and he was not present to vote on the repeal of Occasional Conformity Act 1711 and Schism Act 1714  in 1719
The 4th Baronet died on 21st April 1720 and was buried in Wingham Church
5th: Sir George(3) Oxenden of Dene (1694 - 1775)
The third son of George(2) was born 26th October 1694. He was elect Member of Parliment for Sandwich on 9th May 1720 and in the same month he married Elizabeth Dunch, who was the daughter (and co heir) of Edmund Dunch, Master of the Household. George and Elizabeth had three sons and two daughters but only Henry(7) (7) is known to have survived to adulthood.
The following year he was appointed as a Lord of the Admiralty and in 1728 he became a Lord of the Treasury
George(3)'s life was riddled with scandal and Horace Walpole said of him
The fine gentleman of the age, extremely handsome, a speaker in Parliament, a lord of the Treasury, very ambitious, and a particular favourite of my father-till he became so of my sister-in-law. That, and a worse story, blasted all his prospects and buried him in retirement.
In 1732 word that his town and country houses and their content were seized for debt prompted John Perceval to comment:
Sir George Oxenden is a proud, conceited, lewd man but one would think an estate of £2,500 a year, and the post of lord of the Treasury, would have kept men out of gaol, from whence now it is only his being a Member of Parliament that does it. Sir Robert Walpole was his patron, and gave him the great employment he has, and in return he got the lady of my Lord Walpole, Sir Robert’s son, with child, and this unlawful issue will inherit the estate.
In 1734 further scandal ensued. He was said to have had two children by his wife's sister who was married to his friend (Mr Thomson). Oxenden claimed that the couple had separated, but when the lady died in childbirth  it was suggested that he may have been more to blame than just for being the father of the child.
In 1737 He was dismissed from his position as Member of Parliament, in part for voting against the government and because he neglected his duties. John Hervey said that 
‘Nobody was sorry for him, for he was a very vicious, ungrateful, good-for-nothing fellow. He passed his whole life in all manner of debauchery and with low company’
In 1741, George(3) was reelected for Sandwich and befriended the Prince of Wales, who gave his son a place in his household.
After retiring form Parliament in 1774 he continued to take an active interest in local politics until his death at Dene on 20th January 1775.
more info: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/oxenden-sir-george-1694-1775
6th: Henry(7) Oxenden of Dene (1721-1803)
Son of George(3) born 5th September 1721 at Dene
He married Margaret Chudleigh on 31st July 1755 and they had a son, Henry(8)
He died on 21st June 1803 at Broome and was buried at Wingham
7th: Henry(8) Oxenden (1756 - 1838)
The son of Henry(7) was born on 14th May 1756
He married Mary, daughter of Colonel Graham of  St Lawrence, Canterbury. They had children,  Mary, Henry(9) Chudleigh Oxenden, George (d. 22nd September 1875), Montague, Charles, Graham (d. 1826), Frances, Charlotte and Ashton.
Henry was sent to Eton at the age of 7 and then to the University of Cambridge where he devised a machine that would carry him over a measured mile in 5 minutes. It was powered by sail an could travel at  15  miles per hour.
He served as Commissioner of Dover Harbour for 50 years and commanded a troop of Yeomanry the early years of the Napoleonic Wars.
Died 22nd September 1838 at Broome and was  buried at Barham. Among the pall bearers  were the Duke of Wellington and the Earl of Guilford
His obituary in The Gentleman's Magazine vol. 165 says
His tenantry have lost a kind, considerate, liberal landlord and; East Kent has to regret parting wqith one of the few remaining perfect Old English country gentleman.
It also tells us that he "he gave an almost daily superintendance" in his role as Commissioner and was a celebrated breeder of South Down sheep.
8th: Henry(9) Chudleigh Oxenden (1795 - 1889)
The first  son of  Henry(8) was born on 24th June  1795. He was married firstly to Charlotte Brown (d. March 1843) and then  then on  28th July 1848 to Elizabeth Phobe King (d. 1st September 1877)
A far different character from his hard working father, Chudleigh seems never to have had a regular occupation. (if any)
On 5th Aug 1826 he and George Oxenden (his brother?) were found guilty of running down a Mr. Stokes. Stokes (a blacksmith) and  two companions had been, with permission of the steward, digging out two dogs that were stuck in fox burrows. When he came upon them Henry(9) demanded that they leave and that the steward tell them to do so. They began to leave, but a group on horseback  appeared. Calling to them Henry(9) said they should give chase. They pursued Stokes and his companions, striking at their dogs. Henry(9) cried "Ride over them" and ran down Stokes who was kicked in the head and hip by the horse. Of the party giving chase, witnesses could only positively identify Henry(9) and a George Oxenden (probably his brother). Summing up the judge said
"... the pusuit of manly sports could not justify the violations of the safety of his majesty's subjects under any circumstances"
Henry and George were found guilty and ordered to pay damages of £100 (source)
On 24th April 1860 Henry(9) reported to be in jail at Maidstone (source
On 10th Jan 1862 he was in Whitecross Street Prison for debt. (source)
The Herald Glasgow Daily Herald of October 28th 1867 reports that Henry(9) was befroe the London Bankruptcy Court with creditors including "tailors, boot makers, hosiers, shirt makers, wine merchants, gun makers, a whiskey merchant and tradesmen of of various description". Unsecured debts totaled £722. The sale of his furniture at his home in Shepherdswell was ordered in favour of Mr. Ling (a surgeon from Barham). The estimated £200 was security against a debt of £270
Henry(9) died on  14th August 1889 and having no children the baronetcy passed to his nephew.
9th Henry(10) Montague Oxenden (1825 - 1895)
Little is known about the eldest son of of Montague, (grandson of Henry(8)) apart form his date of birth on 20th June 1825 and his demise in September 1895
10th: Sir Percy Dixwell-Oxenden
Percy Oxenden, the youngest of Montague's children was born on 6th June 1838 and succeeded his brother Henry(10) Montague.
He married Isabella Finch-Hatton on 26th November 1868. They had 3 children Gwendolen Isabel, Basil Hineage Dixwell and Muriel Elizabeth Anna Louisa 
He served as a Magistrate for Kent and assumed the Dixwell suffix in 1890.
His son Basil died in 1919 and when  when Sir Percy's life ended at Dene on 12th July 1924, the Oxenden Baronetcy came to an end.